Plywood is one of the few wood variations which don’t come naturally. It is in fact an engineered wooden board which is built with multiple layers joined together using glue.
By pressing two or more such layers against each other, this thin board is formed maintaining an impressive strength. For instance, one plywood piece of ¾-inch thickness and measured at 12x36 inches in size can hold up to 50 lbs. with ease.
Its strength is inversely proportional to the thickness. Ironically, the thicker plywood blocks can support lesser weights.
Now you may be tempted to use nails on your plywood projects. While nails are usually the first choice for harder materials, they do not perform so well on plywood because of its softness. Using nails will need you to hammer the bolts into the wood which cause the planks to split up.
That is why screws are the better choice for working on plywood. The best screws for plywood allow you to comfortably drill into the wood without making it split. Besides, the construction and texture of screws are more suitable for driving deep into the blocks.
How To Choose The Right Plywood Screws?
Plywood screws can be made from a number of materials including steel, brass, aluminum and bronze. Usually, most of the screws are made of steel.
It shows the finest performance for both outdoor and indoor woodworking projects. Steel screws also provide strength at an affordable price while also offering a wide range of sizes to choose from.
Comparatively, drywall screws are built from harder material and cheaper than the old-fashioned tapered alternatives. Besides, these screws are mostly self-drilling which makes the work easier. On the other hand, tapered screws are more capable of handling higher stress or drive forces.
The head of a screw plays an important role in any woodworking project since this is what decides how the bolt will look from the outside. Some screw heads can sink flush with the surface while others fail. You can pick your most preferable head from the following popular options:
Bugle head screws can sink flush with the working surface no matter what material it is. They are usually ¼-inch in diameter and can save your time from pre-drilling holes.
The head portion is a countersunk one where the top is flat and followed by a concave surface. Such structure allows wider distribution of the bearing stress. Typically, bugle heads are used for drywall application.
If your project requires screws which show the least bit of head, then the Trim Head variations are the best plywood screws for you. Similar to the bugle head, this one also automatically sinks flush with the surrounding surface.
Trim head screws provide less holding power than bugle heads and require pre-drilled holes. However, they give better finishing in tasks which need to set door jambs and mountain moldings. These are safe to keep the delicate wood parts from splitting.
These are also called mushroom head screws. The term comes from their structure which has a wider diameter and rounded shape. Truss head is the finest for tasks like mounting hardware where you can achieve good contact between them without making the screw’s presence too prominent on the exterior.
Washer heads appear to be similar to typical round head screws except the tiny washers built into them. Such a design enables the screw to distribute the weight better over a wider space. They are usually self-drilling in nature which don’t require making a hole prior to application.
For a similar structure with wider head, go for super washer heads. These join two plywood planks strongly but also leave room for adjustments. You will find these most prominently in woodworking projects like drawers.
The drive of a screw dictates how it can be turned. It is basically the arrangement of protrusions and cavities which helps with the creation of torque. While there are many screw drives available in the market, the most prominent and easily available among them are:
This is the most common drive observable among the woodworking projects nowadays. They have been popular since the 1930s because of their ability to ensure tight fitting. You can identify it from the cross recess pattern.
Even though their tendency to cam out is not helpful for DIY projects, this drawback is utilized for the better by the automobile factories. It keeps you safe from drilling the screws more tightly than necessary.
As you may have guessed from its name, these drives bear a square-shaped socket on their head. This design makes it easier for you to insert the hardware tool. You can work with it using just one hand, even if the drilling surface is shaking!
Known as Robertson or Scrulox drive, these screws reduce the cam-out effect and thus save you from all the effort of slipping the tool. Besides, you can remove them easily when they get rusty or if they need to be painted over.
This is another popular drive which prevents cam out. Their socket looks like a star which is why they are also known as star drive.
Similar to the square drives, this one also requires minimum effort from the worker. When you set it on the bit’s tip, you don't need to hold on to it for driving anymore. So you can operate the Torx drive screws with just one hand.
The thread refers to spiral encompassing a screw. Its presence enables the screw to be self-drilling. Usually, the coarse threads are better for plywood than fine threads since they establish stronger hold in it.
However, nowadays they both are doing well because of newer designs of fine thread being incorporated into screws. Along with plywood, these threads have proved to be effective in many other materials.
Driving any screw begins from its end point or tip. It is responsible for creating the opening effortlessly into the plywood plank and driving the rest of the screw into the block.
The most common point you will see in screws is the Type 17 which is used in construction, production and deck jobs. It has the maximum sharpness that easily penetrates materials even harder than plywood.
Screws made of steel are generally coated or plated with another material to ensure high durability. The difference between these two processes is that plating is always applied to bare screws while coating may be done to bare or plated screws.
Steel is prone to forming rust or corrosion especially when in contact with moisture. Coating or plating with zinc stops that from happening to some extent. Another transparent or colored chromate layer of coating on this zinc can prevent white rust from forming.
You can also go for screws with black phosphorus or black oxide which provide the steel screws with mild security from corrosion. Along with protection, coating also gives screws enhanced appearance of more appealing shades like golden, black, silver etc.
Top 12 Best Plywood Screws In 2021
1. GRK 772691020697 R4
Screws have always been the highlight of GRK’s product range. Their wide variety of screws has proved to be both functional and durable for users. This particular screw model of R4 has been on the top of popularity charts ever since its release.
First of all, they don’t look cheap in any way. They come with either a shining silver shade or a lustrous golden tone that will not undermine the appeal of your plywood structure, rather enhance it!
One pack will get you 100 of them at a time, which should last long enough to complete your project. But if you do need more, they also come in groups of three packs giving you plenty to work with.
These screws are designed to make your work faster and therefore giving you the advantage of improved productivity. Impress your clients and colleagues with its fast bite tip which removes the need for pre-drilling. You can get a faster start for single-step installations this way.
Additionally, it provides low torque with W-CutTM which enables faster driving and thus makes each installation process easier. You don’t have to deal with too much wobbling either since the fitting between these screws and the GRK bits are absolutely accurate.
Along with working great on plywood, the R4 screws are also good for using on plastic, particle-board, cement fiberboard, sheet metal, melamine, composite decking and wood decking. So you can get a lot of projects done by relying on this one set of screws.
They are capable of gripping the wood well without stripping off the heads. Since they are made of 305 stainless steel, these screws will not form rust over the years. Since it is safe from corrosion and stains, you can use the screws in corrosive environments like decks, boardwalks, pools, spas and lakes.
2. The Hillman Group 5934 ProCrafter Wood Screw
The Hillman Group has been developing fasteners since 1964. With experiences in this industry spread over more than half a century, Hillman has plenty to offer for the people looking for home improvements. Its ProCrafter model of screws is one of their offerings to make woodworks a little easier for you.
This screw brings in premium quality which is ensured through the unique features laid out upon it.
First of all, you don’t have to pre-drill it for a smooth drive into the plywood. Its sharp end can make itself go through the wood. Besides, the countersinking nibs placed on it allows each drive to be clean and effortless.
You don’t have to worry about splitting the block of plywood while using these screws. Type 17 cut-point can prevent such occurrences while allowing smooth and quick penetration.
Their size is small enough to keep the wood intact and strong enough to hold everything together. It manages to bring the best of both worlds for you!
They do a good job of blending into the wooden texture and shades. Each screw has a finishing of zinc and yellow which look good with any plywood structure. Instead of the typical Phillips head, these screws come with square heads that don’t cam out so frequently. So you can be more confident about the fitting.
Make the installation processes easier with their secondary serrations which effectively bring the torque down. Get a 100 of them at a time from a regular retail package. They will prove to be quite effective on indoor woodwork projects like furniture, cabinets and DIY crafts.
3. Xylan Coated Stainless Flat Head Phillips Wood Screw
Now let’s take a detour from the golden screws and come to the dark side! These screws for plywood have a different look on them compared to the usual chrome and golden variations. They have donned the black shade all over because of their Xylan coating.
The material of Xylan has been incorporated here to enhance the already high durability of these screws. They are made of 100% 304 stainless steel which brings in a superior resistance against corrosion. Adding a layer of Black Xylon on it has taken that longevity up a notch.
If you have been struggling to find the perfect screws for your plywood projects in wet areas, these screws can be your solution. The hardware goes well for wooden structures for using in or around freshwater, saltwater and similar marine environments.
Xylan Flat Heads are the best plywood screws for both indoor and outdoor purposes. Due to their sturdy construction, these screws do not break easily. Be it just wood or a composite material, these screws can drive through either of them with equal ease. Each screw has a flat head with deep cut Philips drive to avoid stripping.
These screws are available in two sizes of number 6 and number 8. Besides, a total of seven styles are present as well which include ⅜ inch, ½ inch, ¾ inch, 1 inch, 1-½ inches, 1-¼ inches and 2 inches. In one pack, there are 100 pieces of the same size and a particular style.
Remember that these are not self-drilling screws. You will need to pre-drill the plywood surface before getting these into it. Then the full coarse threads will do the rest by holding the pieces together.
4. Kreg SML-C1-100 Pocket Screws
Kreg is well-known among the woodworkers since this brand has been behind many popular screws, jigs and similar items. This particular model of screws will easily catch your eyes because of their unique appearance and equally impressive features.
They all have a square drive which is much easier to work with than the typical Phillips drive. You will not have to deal with slipping bits repeatedly while driving the screw through plywood because of this structure. As a result, every woodwork session can go on more smoothly and raise your productivity levels for the day.
Besides, the flat-bottomed head manages to seat firmly in a pocket hole. So using them will get you perfect fittings every time without putting in too much effort.
Due to the smooth shank, you can draw the joint together more easily. Their strong construction is not prone to snapping, breaking or bending. The self-tapping tip enables them to drill their own holes without splitting the wood.
While stainless steel is a popular choice for such screws, this particular model is actually made of zinc. This material helps to bring down the cost per unit while maintaining a similar level of resistance against rust. If investing in stainless steel is crossing your budget limits, you can rely on the zinc screws instead.
These screws are primarily aimed at indoor projects involving softer materials. In addition to plywood, this category of materials includes pine, MDF, particleboard and melamine. So you can utilize the screws in many other DIY projects along with the plywood one.
5. WoodPro Fasteners AP8X112-5 T20 All Purpose Wood Construction Screws
As the brand name suggests, these screws are a pro for woodworks. WoodPro has been providing high-quality fasteners across our great nation since 1995. Collecting the finest resources from all over the world, they seem determined to deliver nothing but top-notch products.
Just like this model, all their screws have proved to be durable, reliable and convenient to customers in a number of ways.
From head to tip - each screw is designed in an aggressive tone which takes no time to make its way through the plywood block. The sharp end begins the process by finely boring into the wood. It is then followed by a bold threading pattern which will clearly leave no stone unturned to drill itself into the block.
Such a self-tapping style makes it way easier for you to get the job done. Since you don’t have to prepare by pre-drilling the surface, you can spend that time doing something else and raise your productivity levels.
Another way these screws save up your time is by incorporating a Torx compatible star drive head into its design. Such heads are immune to repeated slipping off the power tool. As a result, you can be done with the driving much sooner than with other heads like Phillips.
The sturdy construction of these screws is complemented by the 1,000 hour PPG E-coating. This layer enhances its durability by providing protection against rust.
Its structure includes a long shank which makes it easier for amateur carpenters to do their job right. Just let the screw glide through the wood without slipping bits or splitting the blocks.
Investing in just one pack of these should do you good for a long time since each has about 1,050 screws. They are sized at number 8 and don a golden shade.
6. Kreg SML-C125-500 Coarse Maxi-Loc Pocket Hole Screws
This is another self-drilling screw from Kreg’s Maxi-Loc series which bears an aggressive design.
If you have been struggling to work with wood planks of ½-inch or ¾-inch thickness, this set of screws will get you a good night’s sleep since they are meant to work flawlessly with the large wood pieces.
As you can guess from the name, its threading has a coarse texture that makes these screws ideal for working on thick chunks of plywood.
The sharp threading covers the largest area of this screw between shank and pointy tip. So when you drive it into the wood, it smoothly sets up the pieces together without demanding much effort from you.
To make each drive glide through even more effortlessly, these screws come with built-in washers. You will find these in their heads which play a part in making the task easier, as well as keeping the screws almost inconspicuous in the finished product. Besides, they distribute the overall load on the wider area effectively.
Square drive prevents slipping tools away which should reduce your fastening struggles significantly. It is certainly more competent for this part of the task than the common Philips drive. Being a pocket-hole screw, it also shines at overdriving in pocket bottoms.
These screws are made of stainless steel so that you can get a long-lasting result from your hard work. This steel fights against corrosion which makes the end product reliable to use for years to come. Investing in one box of these will get you 500 pieces of pocket-hole screws at once.
7. Qualihome #6 Coarse Thread Sharp Point Drywall Screw
If you have been thinking of redecorating your home or office interior using drywall panels, this set of screws from Qualihome is the one to look out for.
Drywall and plywood have similar properties when it comes to hardness. They both are soft and sturdy at the same time which makes them great options for indoor walls. You can use either for your task since these screws can work with both of them.
However, they come with bugle heads which are known to be most suited for drywall projects. They are ideal for attaching the gypsum boards to wood studs. You can also use them for wood to wood joints. Their sharp tip can pierce through the drywall or wood panel smoothly.
This self-drilling screw features a countersunk head for faster and easier installations. The top is flat so that the screws don’t draw much attention once the product is finished. But they do bring some aesthetic value since these bolts come in pitch black shades instead of the usual metallic tones.
A black coarse threading covers each screw extensively. There is not much space left for the shank part here. The flat head features the usual Philips drive. These bolts are made head to tip from strong metal steel which ensures high durability.
If you’re looking for the best wood screws for plywood that ensure longevity as well, Qualihome is your choice. The coarse threading plays a vital role in securing the gypsum board or plywood panel to the stud.
Such a design allows the screw to grab into the wood stud firmly. As a result, the joint is not left as flimsy and stays its course. You can find these screws in twelve distinct sizes of 1, 1-¼, 1-⅝, 2, 2-½, 2-¼, 3, 3-½, 4, 4-½, 5 and 6 inches. In every pack, you will get 210 pieces of the same size.
8. Snug Fastener Zinc Phillips Pan Head Wood Screws
These particular screws are much shorter than all other options we have discussed so far. Sized at only ⅝ inch, these miniature bolts aim at being your general all-round partner of fixing plywood figures.
Although you might not think of them as being the big macho screws of today’s generation, these lowly screws were all the rage back in 100 BC and have helped us build our civilization basically. They were the backbone behind coming up with ideas for the simplest machines mankind has ever produced.
“Ok that’s great and all but how does that help me?” Great question!
You can use these screws to complete installations that require a higher amount of torque. That is because they have a pan head structure where the top is a little rounded with sharp vertical edges. Such designs are the most suitable for generating high torque while working with wood and metal.
They are great for general woodworking tasks like construction, HVAC, roofing, installation and similar straightforward jobs.
Combining the pan head with a Phillips drive, these bolts allow tighter fittings than its competitors. That is why this drive configuration is so popular among professionals who are always engaged in some kind of fixing.
The overall construction of the Snug fasteners enables it to be self-dependent. They can drill themselves into the plywood plank using the fine deep thread. This design brings down the overall time required to get the job done with minimal effort.
They are made of carbon steel complemented by a thin coating of zinc. So once you build something with these screws, they should serve well for a long time fighting rust formation. Get 100 pieces of these in each pack of Snug fasteners.
9. Kreg Zinc Fine Maxi-Loc
The last offering from Kreg for plywood screws is another product of their Maxi-Loc series. Each of them is of decent length measured at 1-¼ inches. It gets its shiny looks from a silver finishing.
The areas covered by shank and threading are almost equal. Of course, these pieces feature the unique jagged tip at the bottom which is the trademark for Kreg Maxi-Loc screws.
They are built to last for a long time. A sturdy construction of stainless steel makes sure of that. We all know how gallantly this kind of steel fights against corrosion over time. To make it even more durable, these screws are blessed with a dry lubricant coating for protection against rust.
You will see the fine threading covering half of its bottom portion. This kind of threads make the whole process easier for the user since it can get into hard materials more effortlessly. Besides, they also prove to be great choices for tubes with thin walls.
This threading inspires more confidence in a way too since they have smaller incline and thus are less likely to loosen up over time. Besides, you don’t need to generate much torque for developing equivalent bolt preloads. The square drive will prevent constant slipping of hardware tools.
Remember to rely on these screws only for indoor projects. They will not be able to do well with long exposures in the outdoor environment. Especially in the presence of water or wet environments like marine areas, these screws are not recommended at all.
10. Snug Tan Fence & Deck Screws
The second option from Snug Fasteners for using on plywood is this model meant specifically for fence and deck projects. Every piece has the length of 1-⅝ inch which is a good amount for those projects.
They have Torx drives which are star shaped openings on the head. This kind of drive enable more torque in the process and thus guarantee a higher level of tamper resistance or security. Their torque is much greater than that of the more common drives like a Phillips one.
A common issue with Torx drives is the struggle to fit the bit into the openings. That is not a problem with this set since the package already comes with a compatible drill bit. All you have to do is place it in the opening and go for the drill. Such head concealment takes away a lot of stress from the user.
Its body is covered well with coarse threading. This gives it self-drilling capabilities which in turn will make the job easier for you to get into the plywood plank. Such threading has proved to be more resistant to stripping because of their greater flank engagement.
This threading will help you to get through the wood much faster than other alternatives.
For ensuring long-lasting use, the screws come with a tan coating which provides premium corrosion resistance. As a result, your fence or deck will serve you for a n impressive period with these screws. One pack of this Snug bolts come with 100 pieces of the same size.
11. Snug Fastener Flat Zinc Coated Phillips Head Wood Screws
Here we have the last set of plywood screws from Snug Fastener. They are pretty small in size compared to other options on this list. They come at a mere length of ⅝ inch which means these are not ideal for using on thick planks of plywood.
Rather, they are more suited towards indoor projects where thin woodblocks need to be joined for completing the structure.
There is no presence of shank in these screws. Their entire body consists of the drive head and the threading. So you need to be slightly more careful while working with them.
The Phillips head drive is the most common variation you will find among plywood screws. This happens mainly due to the fact that they are more capable of making a tight fit than other alternatives.
Even though their centered design is more prone to cam out, in the case of industrial production it is considered as an advantage. When products are assembled in a line in factories, a Phillips drive screw keeps them safe from getting overtightened.
As for woodworkers, they might still have a hard time with the cam-outs since they lead to scarred wood and disfigured finishes.
There is a fine deep threading all over this screw which makes it a self-drilling option. Comparatively, the fine thread has proved to be stronger than coarse threading in both shear and tension. Their smaller pitch lets you achieve finer adjustments for certain projects.
Besides, they don’t need much torque to produce bolt preloads. You can get them inside the hard wood more easily and their small incline will not be prone to getting loose every now and then. Having a flat head allows this screw to make more room for the fine threading to continue.
12. BLUELEC Antique Style AntiOxidative Finish Wood Screws
Known for its amazing customer services, the brand of Bluelec brings you this set of wood screws with an anti-oxidative finishing. Such finishing may not provide as strong a corrosion resistance as stainless steel, it still does the job with decency. Additionally, it also gives the screws some lubricity.
Along with the oxide finish, you will also be getting two color variations for your aesthetic purposes. These screws come in two heavily distinct colors of black and golden. So according to your surface colors, you can choose the one more suitable for the task.
They are very small compared to most of the other screws on this list. These bolts are measured at only 1⁄3rd of an inch. Therefore, they will be of help in some very specific plywood projects where you don’t need to work with thick blocks of wood.
Even though these bolts are mostly flathead, they still have a 45-degree cone shape which is meant for using in countersunk holes. The flat top will allow you to fit flush with any mated surface so that the end product looks flawless.
Even though you may have to deal with constant cam-outs and slipping, its Phillips drive will definitely give you the tightest fittings possible among all drives.
Along with the small size, they are also very lightweight. These screws are built with a material so that it becomes convenient to use and does not cause fatigue on the wood or fingers.
In addition to woodworking, these tiny flathead screws can come to use for gardening and replacing decoration items as well. Resin plywood and plastic materials are the best to work with this kind of bolts. Every pack has 100 such pieces to offer in one of the four available sizes.
Benefits Of Using Plywood Screws
It may have crossed many of your minds - why not just use nails for these woods? The main reason is that applying nails on softer materials like plywood cause the planks to split. So for any woodworking project, screws are the superior choice almost every time.
There are also a number of other benefits to choose plywood screws. The most prominent ones among them are:
Screws which are meant for woodworking generally come with fine threading which are able to create the necessary amount of torque. These threads are meant to drive deep inside the wood blocks.
The torque is created because of the way they bite into the planks. This force helps to keep the two planks or blocks of wood to join together properly. Such threading pulls the blocks well regardless of any existing gap or warp between them.
A trick to make this connection even stronger is to apply some glue to the individual wood blocks before using the screws on them. Doing so can make their bond permanent where the screw will function like a clamp.
They Can Be Removed Easily
If there is ever any need of replacing the screws or simply getting rid of them, you can do so easily with these wood screws. As a result, you don’t have to worry about making a mistake here and there in your project. If there is one, you can just remove the mistaken screw and replace it with the right one.
You can also get rid of any such bolt for good. This applies to any furniture, deck or similar piece created with screws.
These are very easy to use because of their structure. No matter what kind of screw it is, there will surely be a sharp tip at its end to penetrate the wood block easily. Then comes the threaded part which takes off a considerable amount of effort from the user and makes its own space inside the plank comfortably.
Finally, the head drive puts the “nail in the coffin” by ensuring the fit is tight enough. Certain drives like square prevents cam out so that you can maintain an impressive speed with the project.
So from the beginning to the end, the wood screws continuously make the process easier to get by for you. By investing in a self-driving screw, you will not even need to exert the pressure for drilling the hole.
People might think that the best screws for plywood usually come with a hefty price tag. That’s not true. Plywood screws come at a very affordable price point. You can get a hundred of them in less than ten bucks or over a thousand of them within less than fifty.
Moreover, compared to nails, you need less screws to cover a certain area and achieve the same reliability. The variety of sizes available here also helps with your purchasing decision and productivity. You can use the same screw on a wide range of surfaces as well.
Wood screws tend to be stronger than nails. They are not prone to bending, breaking or shearing off regardless of the heavy wind, traffic or weight. You don’t have to worry about them falling off either since screws don’t get loose like nails. Even if a screw does seem ill-fitted, you can push it back in with minimum effort.
Because of their high tensile strength, screws are able to provide a superior performance at an economical cost.
Frequently Asked Questions:
What Thickness Of Plywood Are Usually Available To Use Screws?
Answer: You can find plywood sheets in various sizes with thickness from ⅛ inch, ¼ inch, ⅜ inch, ½ inch, ⅝ inch, ¾ inch, 1-⅛ inches and 1-¼ inches. Among them, the thickness of ⅜ inch and ½ inch are the most easily available options. The largest plywood blocks can be up to 3 inches in thickness.
Do You Screw Or Nail Plywood?
Answer: It is better to use screws on plywood instead of nails. Screws are more suitable for the soft plywood blocks since they can be removed more easily and do not cause splintering. You don’t have to worry about splitting the wood by using screws.
Can You Use Drywall Screws For Plywood?
Answer: While drywall screws have their own share of advantages for many materials, it is better to use wood screws for softer elements like plywood. The drywall screws consist of harder steel which are more likely to split up the plywood planks.
Can You Screw Into Plywood End Grain?
Answer: Yes, you can screw into plywood end grain but we would not recommend it. For that you will need to drill into the dowel and glue it. Another way to do it is giving the plywood a cross-grained wood or hardwood plug for biting into. This will ensure stronger hold.
Can I Use Sheet Metal Screws In Plywood?
Answer: Sheet metal screws are ideally used to join metal sheets. So they may not be the best solution for joining plywood blocks. However, if you don’t have any wood screw at hand, the sheet metal screws can be used for plywood projects. They may not perform as well as wood screws but will get the job done.
Are Square Drives Better Or Phillips Drive?
Answer: They both have an advantage over the other. Phillips drive are prone to cam out but ensure tight fitting without overdoing it. This is why factories and automobiles rely on it. In contrast, square drives prevent cam outs by establishing a strong grip and enabling better self-drilling capabilities.
If you are unsure which one to go for, you can settle for the hybrid drives which support both Phillips and square variations.
The best screws for plywood largely vary according to your individual project requirements. You will need to count in many factors starting from the thickness of wood blocks to surrounding environment of the end product.
Exposure to moisture will play a huge role in this decision since not all screws are built to survive the wet areas. Some are more prone to forming rust than others which can harm the whole structure in the end.
Besides, you may have functional and aesthetic preferences as a carpenter. There are many drives and heads to choose from among these screws. Each of them comes with their own set of benefits and drawbacks. Some will prevent cam-outs while others will ensure reliable long-lasting fittings.
There is no shortage of size variations for these screws. So you can find the most suitable one for your task quite conveniently from such an abundance of options.